Glossary beginning with T

The Glossary provides basic legal and technical definitions for the most common terms related to the fight against illicit traffic in cultural goods.



"Tombarolo" is an Italian term (plural "tombaroli"), derived from the Italian word "tomba", meaning tomb or grave. It refers primarily to "tomb-robbers" operating in Italy, although the term "clandestini" (meaning "illegals" or "clandestines" in Italian) has also been used to describe clandestine diggers, and a tombarolo might not necessarily limit their activities only to tombs and graves; for example sometimes removing material from villas and other sites.

Source: Trafficking Culture

Transfer of ownership

Transfer of ownership is the means by which the bundle of rights allowing one to use, manage, and enjoy property, including the right to convey it to others, is transferred from one hand to another.

This includes the sale and purchase of a property, assumption of mortgage debt, exchange of possession, donation or legacy of a property.

Source: International Observatory on Illicit Traffic in Cultural Goods


A treaty is a formally concluded and ratified agreement between States. The term is used generically to refer to instruments binding at international law, concluded between international entities (States or organisations). Under the Vienna Conventions on the Law of Treaties, a treaty must be (1) a binding instrument, which means that the contracting parties intended to create legal rights and duties; (2) concluded by States or international organisations with treaty-making power; (3) governed by international law and (4) in writing.

Source: United Nations

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