Glossary beginning with E

The Glossary provides basic legal and technical definitions for the most common terms related to the fight against illicit traffic in cultural goods.


Endangered heritage

Any thing or concept considered of aesthetic, historical, scientific or spiritual significance which is in a vulnerable situation and at risk of being destroyed.

Source: International Council of Museums

Endangered object

Any cultural object which is in a vulnerable situation and at risk of being destroyed.

Source: International Council of Museums

Entry into force

A treaty does not enter into force when it is adopted. Typically, the provisions of the treaty determine the date on which the treaty enters into force, often at a specified time following its ratification or accession by a fixed number of States. For example, the 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage entered into force on 2 January 2009, three months after the date of the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by a Member State of UNESCO. A treaty enters into force for those States which gave the required consent.

Source: United Nations


Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity.

Source: Oxford Dictionaries

Ex gratia payment

A payment not legally required, hence made as a favour.

Source: Arthemis, Art-Law Centre, University of Geneva


It is the report of a professional inspection of an object in order to determine its date, its type, its material, its value and provenance (for example, the authenticity and value of a painting).

In the modern sense, it can also be considered as an indication "in general" of a specific investigation of a technical nature, for evaluation and investigation, however, based on the expertise and professionalism.

Source: International Observatory on Illicit Traffic in Cultural Goods

Export (of cultural object)

To send or transport a cultural object abroad, especially for trade or sale.

Source: Encyclopedia

Export certificate

Voir "autorisation (d'exportation)"


A governmental taking (or modification) of an individual’s rights.

Source: Arthemis; Art-Law Centre, University of Geneva

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